Wednesday, February 14, 2018

University College Anuradhapura Language Skills-English D.N. Aloysius-Lecturer in English


Read the following text and do the activities given below.
Aquaculture
The World Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predict that the world’s population will reach over 9 billion within 2050, which is approximately 34% higher than today. Nearly all of this population increase is expected to occur in developing countries. Urbanization will also continue at an accelerated pace, and about 70% of the world’s population will become urban over next 3 decades (compared to 49% today). In addition, income levels in 2050 will be many multiples of what they are now. Hence, the biggest challenge in the future will be to find ways to feed this larger, more urban and richer population. FAO has forecasted sea catches to stop growing at 85 – 90 million tons a year and all incremental demands would have to be met by culturing. By 2030 aquaculture production is estimated to reach more than 90 – 95 million tons, a prognosis based on 3% annual growth. Moreover, to support projected food demands in 2050, production must rise an estimated 70% above current values to allow the global population to continue to consume seafood products at the current rate. Thus, the expected deficits in food supply the next decades are currently being targeted by several stakeholders, NGOs and Governments around the world. Compared to other industries, aquaculture has proven to be an efficient catalyst for production of seafood world-wide. Moreover, aquaculture has arisen as the major mode of food production in order to maintain the current per capita consumption with an average annual growth rate of 11% since 1984. Thus, aquaculture is expected to increase rapidly in volumes and diversity of cultured species, and thereby become the main source to food and protein supply in the future. However, the success rate will, among others, be influenced by development of adequate technical innovations, availability on feed ingredients, cooperation between Governments, and sharing of technology and know-how between aquaculturists. Sri Lanka is now in the process of embarking on a very ambitious aquaculture development plan, targeting doubling of aquaculture production to 95,000 metric tons (MT). This goal will be met through sustainable aquaculture development, addressing technology transfer, training programs, food safety and quality, and environmental integrity.
Activity-1
1.  Do loud reading.
2.  Learn all the new words.
3.  Make a speech on Aquaculture.
4.  Write a brief paragraph on Aquaculture.
Activity-2
Explain the following words.
1.  aquaculturist
2.  environmental integrity
3.  diversity of cultured species
4.  per capita consumption
5.  sustainable aquaculture development
Activity-3
Make a list of abstract nouns from the above passage.
1.  Agriculture
2.  Organization
3.  ---------------------
4.  ---------------------


University College
Anuradhapura
Language Skills-English

Read the following text and do the activities given below.
Aquaculture
The World Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predict that the world’s population will reach over 9 billion within 2050, which is approximately 34% higher than today. Nearly all of this population increase is expected to occur in developing countries. Urbanization will also continue at an accelerated pace, and about 70% of the world’s population will become urban over next 3 decades (compared to 49% today). In addition, income levels in 2050 will be many multiples of what they are now. Hence, the biggest challenge in the future will be to find ways to feed this larger, more urban and richer population. FAO has forecasted sea catches to stop growing at 85 – 90 million tons a year and all incremental demands would have to be met by culturing. By 2030 aquaculture production is estimated to reach more than 90 – 95 million tons, a prognosis based on 3% annual growth. Moreover, to support projected food demands in 2050, production must rise an estimated 70% above current values to allow the global population to continue to consume seafood products at the current rate. Thus, the expected deficits in food supply the next decades are currently being targeted by several stakeholders, NGOs and Governments around the world. Compared to other industries, aquaculture has proven to be an efficient catalyst for production of seafood world-wide. Moreover, aquaculture has arisen as the major mode of food production in order to maintain the current per capita consumption with an average annual growth rate of 11% since 1984. Thus, aquaculture is expected to increase rapidly in volumes and diversity of cultured species, and thereby become the main source to food and protein supply in the future. However, the success rate will, among others, be influenced by development of adequate technical innovations, availability on feed ingredients, cooperation between Governments, and sharing of technology and know-how between aquaculturists. Sri Lanka is now in the process of embarking on a very ambitious aquaculture development plan, targeting doubling of aquaculture production to 95,000 metric tons (MT). This goal will be met through sustainable aquaculture development, addressing technology transfer, training programs, food safety and quality, and environmental integrity.
Activity-1
1.  Do loud reading.
2.  Learn all the new words.
3.  Make a speech on Aquaculture.
4.  Write a brief paragraph on Aquaculture.
Activity-2
Explain the following words.
1.  aquaculturist
2.  environmental integrity
3.  diversity of cultured species
4.  per capita consumption
5.  sustainable aquaculture development
Activity-3
Make a list of abstract nouns from the above passage.
1.  Agriculture
2.  Organization
3.  ---------------------
4.  ---------------------

Tuesday, February 13, 2018

Aquaculture-University College, Anuradhapura-14.02.2018


University College
Anuradhapura
Language Skills-English
D.N. Aloysius-Lecturer in English

Read the following text and do the activities given below.
As the demand for seafood has increased, technology has made it possible to grow food in coastal marine waters and the open ocean. Aquaculture is a method used to produce food and other commercial products, restore habitat and replenish wild stocks, and rebuild populations of threatened and endangered species.
There are two main types of aquaculture—marine and freshwater. NOAA efforts primarily focus on marine aquaculture, which refers to farming species that live in the ocean.
In the United States, marine aquaculture produces numerous species including oysters, clams, mussels, shrimp, seaweeds, and fish such as salmon, black sea bass, sablefish, yellowtail, and pompano. There are many ways to farm marine shellfish, including “seeding” small shellfish on the seafloor or by growing them in sinking or floating cages. Marine fish farming is typically done in net pens in the water or in tanks on land.
U.S. freshwater aquaculture produces species such as catfish and trout. Freshwater aquaculture primarily takes place in ponds or other manmade systems.
NOAA is committed to supporting an aquaculture industry that is economically, environmentally and socially sustainable. NOAA experts and partners work to understand the environmental effects of aquaculture in different settings and provide best management practices to help reduce the risk of negative impacts.
Aquaculture is breeding, raising, and harvesting fish, shellfish, and aquatic plants. Basically, it’s farming in water. U.S. aquaculture is an environmentally responsible source of food and commercial products, helps to create healthier habitats, and is used to rebuild stocks of threatened or endangered species.
 Activity-1
1.   Do loud reading.
2.   Learn all the new words.
3.   Make a speech on Aquaculture.
4.   Write a brief paragraph on Aquaculture.
Activity-2
Complete the following table with suitable words from the above text.
Word Classes/Parts of Speech
Nouns

Adjectives

Verbs

Adverbs

Pronouns

Conjunctions

Prepositions

Interjections



Morning at the Window by T. S. Eliot (Thomas Sterne Eliot) Summary and Critical Analysis


"Morning at the Window" is an imagist poem that presents an image of poverty. The picture is that of a slum where people lead miserable lives. The speaker is at the window. He may be a visitor of a certain house in the area where poor people live. The images that come to his eyes are 'object correlatives' or objects corresponding certain ideas and emotions in the poet's and the reader's mind.
The images in the poem correlate with the idea of poverty and feelings of sympathy. But the poem only presents them just the objective image, rather than romantically expressing his feelings and emotions. There is also a balance between feelings and ideas in the sense that the image arouses not only feelings in the reader but also provokes thoughts and ideas.
The poem is a set of striking images of poverty; the poet says nothing but shows them. The poor people are rattling (making a sound) breakfast plates early in the morning. It is an obligation for poor people to go to work early and work till late. Sun or shower, frost or fog, they have to set out early. The image brings to mind similar images of poverty. The speaker says that he is aware of the condition of the households' minds and souls, or their psychology. He doesn't describe that. Such housemaids are appearing one after another at the city gate. Maybe they come from villages. They have no identity, dignity and meaningful life. They are 'despondent', or extremely sad.
The speaker seems to go along, or else look further away waves of "brown" fog which come up to him. This is perhaps because the city air is so polluted. Twisted faces of depressed people pass by. A passerby has tears in the eyes. The speaker takes another glance and sees her dirty skirt. Another person comes up and tries to smile, but fails. The smile vanishes among the city roofs. All these disjointed images can be put together to build up a general picture of the poor people's plight. The focus is on poor servant girls whose souls themselves are "damp" (moist and dirt). The poet evokes our emotion without telling his emotions. He arouses pity without telling his pity for the people.
Eliot asserted that poetry must present 'objective correlatives' or objects and events that will correspond to certain emotions in the reader's experience. The poet need not express his personal emotion. This idea of poetry is anti-romantic. For instance, when we encounter objective images of poverty, we understand it. The image of a child on top of a burning house would need no explanation!
Eliot also strongly suggested that poetry must balance intellect, (thought) and emotion (feeling). The feelings of the individual poet must become a matter of thought for everyone in the poem. This balance is called 'unified sensibility'. The present poem presents only objective correlatives of poverty; the poet doesn't describe his feelings put presents objects that correlate or correspond to sympathy towards the poor. He balances the underlying feelings of pathos (pity) with a thoughtful mind and serous art. Eliot shows how personal emotion can be transformed into a universal thought-provoking image. Eliot also presents things as his impressions recorded them. The twisted face, the aimless smile, the eyes with tears, the muddy skirts are fragments of his impressions. The poet presents in the same way that these things made the impression on him. In this sense, the poem is impressionistic.
We can also call the whole set of images in the poem a symbol. The imagery is familiar and vivid. It can be said to symbolize poverty. The objective presentation of images makes the poem an Imagist poem. Its symbolic meaning and impressionistic viewpoint are also other important features of the poem. In short, such a presentation is unique, that makes the poem memorable and unique though the subject matter of poverty is very common.
The theme of the poem "Morning at the Window" is poverty. The poem presents a very human picture of poor people in the city slum. The poem presents a set of typical images that suggest poverty, depression, misery and squalor in the slums (poor and dirty areas of the cities) where the poor live. The poet also mentions the state of the souls of the housemaids. So the poem thematically includes the issues of poverty, depression and squalor in the lives of poor people in the city.
Perhaps more terrible than poverty is the problem of depression and distress with which the poor people in the pace live their lives. The damp souls of housemaids, the twisted face of a passerby, the tears in the eyes of a girl who is also wearing a muddy skirt, and the aimless smile of a person who tries and fails to smile are all indicators of sadness and frustration as well as poverty. Poor people can sometimes be happy, as in tribal villages. But here the problem of unhappiness seems to be even more terrible.
The people rattling breakfast plates early in the morning suggest the poverty of the people who have to go to work early. They are also living in the basements of houses for they cannot afford to live in better apartments. The very roads in those streets are trampled or torn. The speaker feels that the housemaids are down hearted and miserable. But for the city dwellers, the poor girls sprout out of nowhere at the gates of the city. The speaker then notices a set of several other images of poverty and dejection. He sees twisted faces of people who certainly have pain and distress. He sees a girl with tears in her eyes and a muddy skirt on her. Then someone passes by with an aimless smile. All these images are objective correlatives of poverty, which is the main theme of the poem.


A Summary and Analysis of James Joyce’s ‘Eveline’

 ‘Eveline’ is one of the shortest stories that make up James Joyce’s collection Dubliners (1914), a volume that was not an initial commercial success (it sold just 379 copies in its first year of publication, and 120 of those were bought by Joyce himself). Yet, Dubliners redefined the short story and is now viewed as a classic work of modernist fiction, with each of its fifteen short stories repaying close analysis. ‘Eveline’ focuses on a young Irish woman of nineteen years of age, who plans to leave her abusive father and poverty-stricken existence in Ireland, and seek out a new, better life for herself and her lover Frank in Buenos Aires.

Eveline is a young woman living in Dublin with her father. Her mother is dead. Dreaming of a better life beyond the shores of Ireland, Eveline plans to elope with Frank, a sailor who is her secret lover (Eveline’s father having forbade Eveline to see Frank after the two men fell out), and start a new life in Argentina. With her mother gone, Eveline is responsible for the day-to-day running of the household: her father is drunk and only reluctantly tips up his share of the weekly housekeeping money, and her brother Harry is busy working and is away a lot on business (another brother, Ernest, has died). Eveline herself keeps down a job working in a shop. On Saturday nights, when she asks her father for some money, he tends to unleash a tirade of verbal abuse, and is often drunk. When he eventually hands over his housekeeping money, Eveline has to go to the shops and buy the food for the Sunday dinner at the last minute. Eveline is tired of this life, and so she and Frank book onto a ship leaving for Argentina. But, as she is just about to board the ship, Eveline suffers a failure of resolve, and cannot go through with it. She wordlessly turns round and goes home, leaving Frank to board the ship alone.
Like many stories in Dubliners, ‘Eveline’ explores the relationship between the past and the future by examining a single person’s attitude to their life in Dublin. Joyce was interested in this relationship, and believed that Ireland – which often had a habit of nostalgically looking backwards and holding onto the past – needed to progress and strive to bring itself up to date. In many ways, Eveline typifies the difficulties faced by many Dubliners at the time. Joyce depicts her current existence as dull, uninspiring, even oppressive, with her abusive father highlighting the idea that the older generation needs to be cast off if young Ireland is to forge itself into a new nation. Even the good aspects of the old Ireland, such as Eveline’s mother and her older brother Ernest, are dead and gone.
And yet when it comes to crunch time, to the moment when she must board the boat, Eveline is unable to do so, and instead clings to the barrier as though literally clinging to old Ireland and the past which is dead and gone but which she cannot leave behind. She cannot let go of the past, as the early sections of the story reveal:
The man out of the last house passed on his way home; she heard his footsteps clacking along the concrete pavement and afterwards crunching on the cinder path before the new red houses. One time there used to be a field there in which they used to play every evening with other people’s children. Then a man from Belfast bought the field and built houses in it – not like their little brown houses but bright brick houses with shining roofs. The children of the avenue used to play together in that field – the Devines, the Waters, the Dunns, little Keogh the cripple, she and her brothers and sisters. Ernest, however, never played: he was too grown up. Her father used often to hunt them in out of the field with his blackthorn stick; but usually little Keogh used to keep nix and call out when he saw her father coming. Still they seemed to have been rather happy then. Her father was not so bad then; and besides, her mother was alive. That was a long time ago; she and her brothers and sisters were all grown up her mother was dead. Tizzie Dunn was dead, too, and the Waters had gone back to England. Everything changes. Now she was going to go away like the others, to leave her home.
‘That was a long time ago’, and everything has changed, yet Eveline sits and reminisces about this happy time from her childhood. And this brings us to one of the most difficult aspects of Joyce’s story to analyze and pin down. Is it this nostalgia for old Ireland – embodied by her childhood memories – that prevents her from emigrating with Frank? Perhaps. The masterstroke on Joyce’s part is refraining from telling us precisely what makes Eveline stay in Dublin at the end of the story. Is it filial duty to her father and brother? Or is it a nostalgic attachment to Ireland, and the happy memories that it carries for her, even though most of the people who shared those memories with her have either emigrated (back to England, revealingly) or have died?
One of the key words in Joyce’s Dubliners is ‘paralysis’: people feel immobilized, unable to move or progress, trapped in their own lives. This, Joyce believed, is what Dublin – and, indeed, much of Ireland – was like as a whole: paralyzed. ‘Eveline’ offers in a little snapshot an example of how deeply such paralysis could run, even leading a young woman to forgo the chance of a new start in favour of remaining in an abusive, dead-end life.


Saturday, February 10, 2018

Life of Pi G.C.E (A .L) 2019-2020


Life of Pi is a story about struggling to survive through seemingly insurmountable odds. The shipwrecked inhabitants of the little lifeboat don’t simply acquiesce to their fate: they actively fight against it. Pi abandons his lifelong vegetarianism and eats fish to sustain himself. Orange Juice, the peaceful orangutan, fights ferociously against the hyena. Even the severely wounded zebra battles to stay alive; his slow, painful struggle vividly illustrates the sheer strength of his life force. As Martel makes clear in his novel, living creatures will often do extraordinary, unexpected, and sometimes heroic things to survive. However, they will also do shameful and barbaric things if pressed. The hyena’s treachery and the blind Frenchman’s turn toward cannibalism show just how far creatures will go when faced with the possibility of extinction. At the end of the novel, when Pi raises the possibility that the fierce tiger, Richard Parker, is actually an aspect of his own personality, and that Pi himself is responsible for some of the horrific events he has narrated, the reader is forced to decide just what kinds of actions are acceptable in a life-or-death situation.
Life of Pi is a story within a story within a story. The novel is framed by a (fictional) note from the author, Yann Martel, who describes how he first came to hear the fantastic tale of Piscine Molitor Patel. Within the framework of Martel’s narration is Pi’s fantastical first-person account of life on the open sea, which forms the bulk of the book. At the end of the novel, a transcript taken from an interrogation of Pi reveals the possible “true” story within that story: that there were no animals at all, and that Pi had spent those 227 days with other human survivors who all eventually perished, leaving only himself.
Pi, however, is not a liar. ‘Each story contains a different kind of truth. One version may be factually true, but the other has an emotional or thematic truth that the other cannot approach. Throughout the novel, Pi expresses disdain for rationalists who only put their faith in “dry, yeastless factuality,” when stories—which can amaze and inspire listeners, and are bound to linger longer in the imagination—are, to him, infinitely superior.
The “true” events of Pi’s sea voyage are too horrible to contemplate directly: any young boy would go insane if faced with the kinds of acts Pi (indirectly) tells his integrators he has witnessed. By recasting his account as an incredible tale about humanlike animals, Pi doesn’t have to face the true cruelty human beings are actually capable of. Similarly, by creating the character of Richard Parker, Pi can disavow the ferocious, violent side of his personality that allowed him to survive on the ocean. Even this is not, technically, a lie in Pi’s eyes. He believes that the tiger-like aspect of his nature and the civilized, human aspect stand in tense opposition and occasional partnership with one another, just as the boy Pi and the tiger Richard Parker are both enemies and allies.
Nature of Religious Belief
Life of Pi begins with an old man in Pondicherry who tells the narrator, “I have a story that will make you believe in God.” Storytelling and religious belief are two closely linked ideas in the novel. On a literal level, each of Pi’s three religions, Hinduism, Christianity, and Islam, come with its own set of tales and fables, which are used to spread the teachings and illustrate the beliefs of the faith. Pi enjoys the wealth of stories, but he also senses that, as Father Martin assured him was true of Christianity, each of these stories might simply be aspects of a greater, universal story about love.
Stories and religious beliefs are also linked in Life of Pi because Pi asserts that both require faith on the part of the listener or devotee. Surprisingly for such a religious boy, Pi admires atheists. To him, the important thing is to believe in something, and Pi can appreciate an atheist’s ability to believe in the absence of God with no concrete proof of that absence. Pi has nothing but disdain, however, for agnostics, who claim that it is impossible to know either way, or who therefore refrain from making a definitive statement on the question of God. Pi sees this as evidence of a shameful lack of imagination. To him, agnostics who cannot make a leap of faith in either direction are like listeners who cannot appreciate the non-literal truth a fictional story might provide.

Wednesday, January 17, 2018

English as a Global Language by David Crystal

English as a Global Language by David Crystal gives a history of English as a developing and far-reaching language in the world.
·        He explains the growing dominance of the English language gracefully.
·        In the first chapter, entitled “Why a Global Language?” Crystal observes that when native speakers of English think of their language’s relative significance in the world, they may feel pride but their pride may be tinged with concern, when they realize that people in other countries may not want to use the language in the same way that as the native speakers do, and are changing it themselves.
·        Examples: British English/American English/Indian English/ Sri Lankan English etc.
·        Crystal is thorough in his explanation of how English has spread in its relatively short history. Crystal explains that it is technology – particularly of modern communication and of accessible air transportation – that has enabled and advanced the spread of English across the world.
·        Transmission of the first radio telecommunication signals, which were in English. Because the technology an innovation of English-speaking Britons and Americans
·        Crystal highlights, the implications and eventual outcome of this – that within a quarter of a century public radio broadcasting would be made for the first time, in English, and would eventually lead to the establishment of English as a lingua franca in international politics, could not possibly have been foreseen.
·        English language has been learned and spoken by an unprecedented number of people